Question 1.1. A student nurse practitioner asks her preceptor about the origins of different tissues, and their cellular origins during the process of development. Which of the following statements by the preceptor best describes the process of cell differentiation? (Points : 3)
“Cells of the hematopoietic system produce the appropriate body cells that are required at each stage of development.”
“A single stem cell differentiates into approximately 200 different types of cells.”
“A fertilized ovum undergoes a series of divisions, yielding many different cell types.”
“Cells differentiate into necessary body cells, peaking after conception, and ceasing near the time of birth.”
Question 2.2. A 77-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of stomach cancer has been found to have metastases in his liver. The patient and his family are surprised at this turn of events, stating that they don’t see how he could have developed cancer in his liver. Which of the following facts would underlie the reply that the care team provides? (Points : 3)
The parenchymal tissue of the liver is particularly susceptible to secondary malignancies.
The portal circulatory system brings venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract into the liver.
Hepatic stromal tissue shares characteristics with cancerous cells, including lack of anchorage dependence.
The proximity of the liver to the stomach allows for direct spread of cancerous cells due to a lack of contact inhibition.
Question 3.3. The NP is teaching a group of older adults about the value of including foods containing antioxidants in their diet. Which of the following statements best captures the rationale underlying the NPs advice?(Points : 3)
Antioxidants inhibit the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Antioxidants prevent the formation of superoxide dismutase.
Antioxidants react nonspecifically with molecules.
Antioxidants prevent the occurrence of cell dysplasia.
Question 4.4. The nurse practitioner is providing care for a patient with a diagnosis of cirrhosis, and he notes that the patient’s sclerae are jaundiced. The nurse practitioner recalls that jaundice is caused by excess accumulation of bilirubin, a pigment that can accumulate in which part of the cell? (Points : 3)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A 51-year-old woman whose grandmother died of breast cancer
A 48-year-old man who takes immunosuppressant drugs following a kidney transplant
A 50-year-old male who is obese and has a low-fiber, high-fat diet
A 38-year-old female with Down syndrome and congenital scoliosis